Admixture among ancient groups based on genome sequence data. A Admixture graph with four migration edges for the individual with the highest sequencing coverage for each geographic site, region, or time period. To improve clarity, branch lengths are not drawn to scale and represent only the hierarchical clustering see SI Appendix, Fig. S10 for the topology drawn to scale. B Genetic affinity of the different early farmer individuals f4-statistic to a Central European Mesolithic individual Loschbour, highest coverage Mesolithic genome , as a function of the dating of the early farmer individuals. A central European LBK individual is used as a baseline early Neolithic farmer highest coverage early Neolithic individual, but the choice of reference individual does not affect the qualitative result SI Appendix, section S All modern-day Iberian groups displayed ancestry from early farmers and hunter—gatherers and also showed admixture from North Africa Fig. Our data suggest that modern-day Basques traced their genetic ancestry to early Iberian farmers.
History[ edit ] Tribes of the Belgae , such as the Menapii and Nervii were the first peoples recorded in the area later known as Nord. During the 4th and 5th Centuries, Roman rulers of Gallia Belgica secured the route from the major port of Bononia Boulogne to Colonia Cologne , by co-opting Germanic peoples north-east of this corridor, such as the Tungri. In effect, the area known later as Nord became an isogloss linguistic border between the Germanic and Romance languages.
Saxon colonisation of the region from the 5th to the 8th centuries likely shifted the isogloss further south so that, by the 9th century, most people immediately north of Lille spoke a dialect of Old Dutch. This has remained evident in the place names of the region. After the County of Flanders became part of France in the 9th century, the isogloss moved north and east.
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Itineraria Antonini Augusti et Burdigalense Leipzig: Pinder, Itinerarium Antonini Berlin Itinerarium Gaditanum Bibliotheca Augustana G. Miliaria Imperii Romani, Pars 2. Materials and Techniques London: Chevallier, Raymond, Les voies romaines 2nd edition Paris: Blanchard Tome VII, Roman country inns,” Classical Bulletin 46 Translation, Transliteration and Transfer,” Glotta 65
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The Royal Navy’s underwater diving operations, Gibraltar – ‘. Bailey, played by Terence Longden, only makes a fleeting appearance. Several events in the film are fictitious but close enough to the truth to be convincing. Moreover, most of the central characters portrayed in the film actually existed. It describes the critical role of Gibraltar as a staging post for Allied shipping transiting the Mediterranean, particularly convoys bound for the besieged island fortress of Malta.
The Italians were determined to diminish this thorn in their side, mainly by employing Decima MAS frogmen riding human torpedoes to fix explosive devices to the hulls of ships assembled in the Bay of Gibraltar and inside the harbour. Initially, their principal targets were warships but they were soon forced to resort to attacking more easily accessible and vulnerable merchant ships. Despite some successes, most of their victims were soon repaired and their cargoes salved. The attackers also suffered several equipment malfunctions and human casualties while conducting their hazardous operations.
The level of detail is impressive, particularly for such a relatively slim volume. The book identifies each participant in the Italian attacks and describes their British counterparts and the often desperate defensive measures they had to adopt. It is richly illustrated with contemporary photos, sketches and diagrams as well as recent photos taken by the author to put significant locations in perspective. The events recounted constituted the genesis of practicable self-contained diving and it is telling that this occurred, like so many other technological advances, in a military context.
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The first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about , years;  the Terra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to around , years ago. The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum , which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombard invasions.
In the city repulsed the Saracens ; but in and again in the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa , and both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties.
During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence ,  but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa. Duchy of Savoy red and other independent Italian states in
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Economy[ edit ] The economy of the department was long dependent on mining , primarily the coal mines near the town of Lens, Pas-de-Calais where coal was discovered in Demographics[ edit ] The inhabitants of the department are called Pas-de-Calaisiens. Pas-de-Calais is one of the most densely populated departments of France, and yet it has no large cities. The remaining population is primarily concentrated along the border with the department of Nord in the mining district, where a string of small towns constitutes an urban area with a population of about 1.
The centre and south of the department are more rural, but still quite heavily populated, with many villages and small towns. Although the department saw some of the heaviest fighting of World War I , its population rebounded quickly after both world wars. However, many of the mining towns have seen dramatic decreases in population, some up to half of their population.
Politics[ edit ] In the second round of the French presidential elections of Pas-de-Calais was one of only two departments in which the candidate of the Front National , Marine Le Pen , received a majority of the votes cast:
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Nata in una famiglia ebrea sefardita , figlia di Adamo Levi, ingegnere elettrotecnico e matematico morto nel  , e della pittrice Adele Montalcini  , e sorella di Gino — , scultore e architetto noto negli anni trenta , e Anna —  , nel Rita nacque insieme alla sorella gemella Paola — , nota pittrice. Tutti e tre furono studenti di Giuseppe Levi verso il quale si sentirono in debito per la formazione in scienze biologiche e per aver insegnato loro come affrontare i problemi scientifici in modo rigoroso, in un momento in cui tale approccio era ancora abbastanza inusuale; fu lo stesso Levi a introdurre in Italia il metodo di coltivazione in vitro.
Nel l’invasione dell’ Italia da parte delle forze armate tedesche li costrinse ad abbandonare il loro rifugio ormai pericoloso.
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PS Since the war, the region has suffered from severe economic difficulties see Economy below but has benefited from the opening of the Channel Tunnel and the growth in cross-Channel traffic in general. French Flemish While the region is predominantly French-speaking, it also has two significant minority language communities: Although neighbouring Belgium currently recognizes and fosters both Picard and Dutch, and a few city-level governments within Nord-Pas-de-Calais have introduced initiatives to encourage both languages,[ citation needed ] the national French government maintains a policy of linguistic unity and generally ignores both languages,  as it does with other regional languages in France.
The region’s ethnic diversity has been affected by repeated waves of immigrant workers from abroad: Belgians before ; Poles and Italians in the s and s; Italians and Germans since and North Africans and Portuguese since ;  and large cities like Lille, Calais, and Boulogne are home to sizable communities of British, Dutch, Scandinavian, Sub-Saharan African, and Latin American immigrants and their descendants.
In , it was announced that a branch of the Louvre would be opened in the city of Lens.
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Process[ edit ] Two owners place their gamecock in the cockpit. The cocks fight until ultimately one of them dies or is critically injured. Historically, this was in a cockpit, a term which was also used in the 16th century to mean a place of entertainment or frenzied activity. William Shakespeare used the term in Henry V to specifically mean the area around the stage of a theatre. In this ancient Roman mosaic , two cocks face off in front of a table displaying the purse for the winner between a caduceus and a palm of victory National Archaeological Museum of Naples Cockfighting is an ancient spectator sport.
There is evidence that cockfighting was a pastime in the Indus Valley Civilization.
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Nord (French pronunciation: ; English: North; Dutch: Noorderdepartement) is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, and the Bishopric of Cambrai.
Herein lies our guide to getting from the city of London to the City of Lights without breaking the bank. This week we completed a spot check comparison of the most popular ways to get to Paris, including rail, plane, coach and car. Some ticket prices will vary depending on day of travel – weekends can incur higher charges see methodology below.
Regardless, these results do give a sound indication of how budget-conscious travellers should plan their journey to the French capital. Marais paris Methodology Prices checked are for a single adult, with no discount cards, both single and return journey four days after outbound trip , as searched for on Thursday March 2 Airfares are hand luggage only. We have not included the cost of airport transfers. Prices checked are for an adult, with no discount cards, both single and return journey four days after outbound trip , as searched for on Thursday March 2, Custom What we have learned or confirmed On the launch of its international routes, Megabus megabus.
Both of these companies beat the Eurolines coach company eurolines. It’s also worth noting that travel company websites have become pretty good at pointing you in the direction of the cheapest fare, so it’s no longer necessary to be suspicious they’re hiding the best value.